This book is about how models can be developed to represent demand and supply on markets, where the emphasis is on demand models. Its primary focus is on models that can be used by managers to support marketing decisions. The market environment is changing rapidly and constantly. Prior to the introduction of scanner equipment in retail outlets, ACNielsen, the major supplier of information on brand performance, claimed that its business was to provide the score but not to explain or predict it. With technological advances and the introduction of the Internet, the opportunity to obtain meaningful estimates of demand functions has vastly improved; models that provide information about the sensitivity of market behavior to marketing activities such as advertising, pricing, promotions and distribution are now routinely used by managers for the identification of changes in marketing programs that can improve brand performance. In today's environment of information overload, the challenge is to make sense of the data that is being provided globally, in real time, from thousands of sources. Modeling Markets presents a comprehensive overview of the tools and methodologies that managers can use in decision making. It has long been known that even simple models outperform judgments in predicting outcomes in a wide variety of contexts. More complex models potentially provide insights about structural relations not available from casual observations. Although marketing models are now widely accepted, the quality of the marketing decisions is critically dependent upon the quality of the models on which those decisions are based. In this book, the authors present a wealth of insights developed at the forefront of the field, covering all key aspects of specification, estimation, validation and use of models. The most current insights and innovations in quantitative marketing are presented, including in-depth discussion of Bayesian estimation methods. Throughout the book, the authors provide examples and illustrations. This book will be of interest to researchers, analysts, managers and students who want to understand, develop or use models of marketing phenomena.
Timing issues are of growing importance for the conceptualization and design of computer-based systems. Timing may simply be essential for the correct behaviour of a system, e.g. of a controller. Even if timing is not essential for the correct behaviour of a system, there may be good reasons to introduce it in such a way that suitable timing becomes relevant for the correct behaviour of a complex system. This book is unique in presenting four algebraic theories about processes, each dealing with timing from a different point of view, in a coherent and systematic way. The timing of actions is either relative or absolute and the underlying time scale is either discrete or continuous.
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