This chapter is organized as follows. The economic problem on which this book focuses is motivated in Section 1. The two tools used to study this economic problem, which are real options theory and game theory, are discussed in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Section 4 surveys the contents of this book. In Section 5 some promising extensions of the research presented in this book are listed. 1. TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT Investment expenditures of companies govern economic growth. Es- pecially investments in new and more efficient technologies are an impor- tant determinant. In particular, in the last two decades an increasing part of the investment expenditures concerns investments in informa- tion and communication technology. Kriebel, 1989 notes that (already) in 1989 roughly 50 percent of new corporate capital expenditures by major United States companies was in information and communication technology. Due to the rapid progress in these technologies, the tech- nology investment decision of the individual firm has become a very complex matter. As an example of the very high pace of technological improvement consider the market for personal computers. IBM intro- duced its Pentium personal computers in the early 1990s at the same price at which it introduced its 80286 personal computers in the 1980s. Therefore it took less than a decade to improve on the order of twenty times in terms of both speed and memory capacities, without increasing the cost (Yorukoglu, 1998).
Russia has the market, the abundant natural resources and the human skills that foreign investors seek. Nevertheless, it still plunged into a post-reform crisis. Myopic policies based on short-term portfolio investments and massive imports have turned an otherwise promising transition to a market economy into a traumatic experience for the Russian people. The situation can be redressed through investments in the real economy. Russia's policy-makers need to spell out a viable and reassuring strategy to attract and optimize foreign investments. This book presents a new concept for foreign direct investment (FDI) and practical guidelines for implementing it in the five-year period 2000-5. The strategic approach to revitalize the economy through FDI can also be applied by authorities in other countries. Well-conceived FDI can benefit both the host country as well as the investor. This book therefore informs corporate executives about the advantages of becoming insiders in difficult markets through a local operation, be it a wholly-owned subsidiary or a joint venture. Special country chapters on the large emerging markets of China, India, Mexico and Russia provide potential investors with comparative information on investment patterns, future trends and legislation.
Russia's post-reform crisis can be alleviated. The country has the market, the abundant natural resources and the human skills that foreign investors seek. What it needs is policies that enhance FDI inflows. Policy-makers can learn from the other large emerging markets like China, India, and Mexico, where FDI has revitalized the economy.
Written in an accessible and succinct style, the textbook illustrates key themes with clear graphics and relevant real-world examples. It discusses significant elements of marketing theory and the latest practices to allow undergraduate and graduate students to understand both traditional and more recent sports marketing practices. Sports Marketing explores the latest sports marketing business practices, helping marketers make effective management and marketing investment decisions. This comprehensive textbook discusses relevant marketing theory and related practices within sports marketing. Each theme will: * Define key sports marketing ingredients * Provide mini-case examples of various sports around the world * Offer end-of-chapter questions and exercises designed to affirm key topics and stimulate the reader's thinking, and * Describe measures of the various sports marketing activities. This textbook will prove an essential companion to students on marketing, business and various sport courses at an undergraduate and postgraduate level.
Investment and financing decisions require the concurrent evaluation of profitability, liquidity, and risk. This book provides expertise to foster sound growth in sales and earnings within risk limits acceptable to management. It offers a unique presentation, based on the author's extensive experience in management, consulting, and teaching. Practical examples and detailed illustrations provide methods for analyzing relevant alternatives that promote clearer communications and better-informed decisions.
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